15 September is a special day for the employees of the Russian Sanitary and Epidemiological Service. On September 15, 1992 
the Council of People's Commissars issued a decree «On Sanitary Authorities of the Republic», defining goals, structure, rights and duties. From this very decree dated the activity of the Russian State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service despite that this authority began to develop long before that date.
In the beginning of XIX century medical and sanitary service in Russia was headed by the Medical Department of the Ministry of Police. In 1828 it was delegated to the Ministry of Home Affairs.
The first city public sanitary organization was set up in 1866 in Moscow comprised of 17 sanitary inspectors, that was a temporary sanitary commission, but lately, in 1884 was founded a permanent commission. In Saint-Petersburg such commission was founded in 1896.
From April 19, 1991 Russian Sanitary and Epidemiological Service had been undergoing considerable changes related to the law "On the sanitary-epidemiological welfare of population" (Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR 09.04.1991 №1035-1).  
In 1999, was adopted a new federal law "On the sanitary-epidemiological welfare of population", clarifying not only the  main  law provisions reissue, but also a number of fundamental provisions were added ,which were previously governed by secondary legislation.
Contemporary Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-Being (Rospotrebnadzor) was established in March 9, 2004 pursuant to the decree of the President of the Russian Federation.
The first head of the service and chief sanitary inspector of the Russian Federation was Gennady Onishchenko. Now days he continues to deal with the public health issues but being in the other post in the Government of the Russian Federation.  On October, 23 2013 Anna Y. Popov was appointed as the head of Rospotrebnadzor.
In difficult conditions of socio-economic reforms in the country Rospotrebnadzor ensures control of sanitary-epidemiological situation, what makes possible to restrain the deterioration, obtain lower total and infectious morbidity, and prevent the spread of dangerous infections and the emergence of hundreds of cases of diseases and poisoning of people. Pospotrebnadzor makes efforts to provide a scientific base for the diagnosis and treatment of infections, training of qualified personnel - preventive medicine specialists.
Preventive medicine is actively developing and coordinating role throughout this major preventive work still remains with the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service.